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Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) is a lineage society that is a non-profit, 501 (c) (3) charitable organization dedicated to historic preservation, education and patriotism. For more information about the DAR click here.
Any woman 18 years or older, regardless of race, religion, or ethnic background, who can prove lineal descent from a patriot of the American Revolution, is eligible for membership. DAR defines a "patriot" as one who provided service or direct assistance in achieving America's independence. For more information about the DAR membership click here.
These acronyms both refer to the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution, and are used interchangeably. The acronym is pronounced by saying each letter "D-A-R" rather than one word "Dar."
The incident in 1939 was one of the first milestones in the struggle for Civil Rights in America. Washington, D.C., was a segregated city at that time and Constitution Hall limited performances to white artists. As the country began to tear down the barriers of race-discrimination, DAR followed suit and changed its policy for the Hall. Miss Anderson sang at Constitution Hall six times after 1939 and launched her farewell tour from our stage.
For more information please visit Marian Anderson and the DAR.
Yes. DAR has members of all races and ethnic backgrounds. For more information about the DAR membership click here.
No. DAR is proud to have members from many different religions, including Catholic, Mormon, Jewish, Buddhist, and Islamic among others. For more information about the DAR membership click here.
The DAR was founded in 1890 by four women whose common bond was the fact that each had fathers or grandfathers who were patriots of the American Revolution. The founders of the Daughters of the American Revolution sought to create an organization that would "perpetuate the memory and spirit of the women and men who achieved American independence."
No, the DAR is not a political organization, nor does it lobby. DAR is a patriotic society composed of members who subscribe to different political philosophies.
No, the DAR provides many different types of scholarships which are open to all. See the Scholarships page of the National Society section for details.
DAR does not produce the concerts performed at Constitution Hall. All tickets are sold through Ticketmaster or the promoter of the event. For more information about Constitution Hall click here.
The Library hours are Monday - Friday, 8:30 am - 4:00 pm and Saturday, 9:00 am - 5:00 pm. The Library is closed on all Federal Holidays. For more information about the DAR Library click here.
Yes, there is a daily user fee of $6.00 for individuals who are non-members of the DAR, Children of the American Revolution (C.A.R.), Sons of the American Revolution (SAR), and Sons of the Revolution (SR). Members of the latter three groups must present a current membership card to receive the fee waiver. For more information about the DAR Library click here.
Yes, the DAR Library has subscriptions to several electronic databases. They are the Ancestry Library Edition, HeritageQuest, Early American Newspapers, The New England Historic Genealogical Society, and Accessible Archives. The DAR Library also has an extensive Manuscript Collection, Family Files, charts, maps, microfilm and microfiche, CD-ROMS, and periodicals. The DAR Library does not provide remote access to any of these databases. For more information about the DAR Library click here.
Your family's history might be found in the DAR Library, which has over 25,000 compiled and published family histories available for research. In addition to published family histories, the library's collection includes county records and histories, Bible records, cemetery records, birth, marriage, and death records, military rosters, census records, and a variety of other published materials to assist researchers in compiling their own family histories. For more information about the DAR Library click here.
In the interest of promoting genealogical research and to assist prospective applicants, NSDAR allows access to its archived member applications. These records can be viewed at the Seimes Technology Center of the DAR Library and copies and may be obtained electronically through our website at a cost of $10 or by mail at a cost of $15. It should be noted that access to DAR records is limited for private research usage only. Records may not be requested for re-publication or public exposure. In addition to the application, the accompanying "proof documents" used to prove the link between each generation in the lineage and to prove the type of patriotic service for the application process are also be available for viewing on site in the Library's Seimes Technology Center. These documents are arranged by the name of the patriot not the member. Please note, the DAR Library does not have a "proof document" file for every patriot. For more information about the DAR Library click here.
No, it is a composite of only those patriots whose descendants have joined the DAR. For example, George Washington had no children and will not be found in the DAR Patriot Index, but Martha Washington, who had children prior to her marriage to George, is included in the Index. The earlier printed version of the DAR Patriot Index has been superseded by the GRS databases, which are kept up-to-date on a daily basis. For more information about the DAR Library click here.
No, because record keeping varied from state to state, there is no complete list of every soldier/sailor who served during the American Revolutionary War. The DAR Library does have lists of soldiers/sailors/etc. from the original colonies and other subsequent states, however these lists vary widely in the type of information recorded for each soldier. Some include birth, death, marriage dates, place of residence, and a lengthy description of service. Others are simply lists of names. For more information about the DAR Library click here.
No, while books on the Revolution are obviously important to the Library, they constitute only a part of the approximately 220,000 books in the collection. The focus of the Library is American history and genealogy. Towards those ends, the Library collects books that will help patrons trace their lineage. Consequently, visitors to the Library will find books of cemetery records, tax records, probate records, marriages, and births. The DAR Library's collection covers all four centuries of American history. For more information about the DAR Library click here.
None of the Library's books, files, or manuscripts are available online. However, the Library's online catalog can be viewed in the Library section. For more information about the DAR Library click here.
No, the DAR Library collection does not circulate, and the Library does not have an interlibrary loan program. Patrons who cannot travel to Washington, D.C., may wish to search the Library's online catalog and take advantage of the Library's Search Service for photocopy requests. For more information about the DAR Library click here.
Museum hours are Monday - Friday 9:30 am - 4:00 pm, Saturday, 9:00 am - 5:00 pm. For more information about the DAR Museum click here.
Farragut North (Red Line) or Farragut West (Orange and Blue Lines). For more information about the DAR Museum click here.
No, the museum gallery is self-guided and open during museum hours. Docent-led tours of the period rooms are available for walk-in visitors on the hour and the half hour, Monday through Friday from 10:00 am to 2:30 pm, and Saturday from 9:00 am to 4:30 pm, subject to docent availability. Self-guided Period Rooms tours are available during museum hours. Admission is free. Special arrangements should be made for groups of 10 or larger at least 4 weeks in advance by calling (202) 879-3241. For more information about the DAR Museum click here.
Yes, you can take a Virtual Tour of the museum period rooms. You can also view Virtual Exhibitions and Featured Museum Objects online. For more information about the DAR Museum click here.
The DAR Museum provides several different types of hands-on learning programs for children such as family craft programs, summer camps, and a touch area. Please see the Educational Programs page of the Museum section for more information or call (202) 879-3240. For more information about the DAR Museum click here.
Possibly. The museum staff encompasses a broad range of expertise in early American decorative arts, including furniture, silver, ceramics, glass, and a variety of textiles. Send us a photograph of your item, or call 202-879-3241 or email firstname.lastname@example.org for curatorial advice. For more information about the DAR Museum click here.
Possibly. We can give you general information, and refer you to sources for conservation or supplies. The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works is a good place to start. They have a page on their web site devoted to "Caring for Your Treasures." For more information about the DAR Museum click here.
No, the museum staff does not provide appraisals. Please contact the American Society of Appraisers at (703) 478-2228, www.appraisers.org, or the International Society of Appraisers at (206) 241-0359, www.isa-appraisers.org, for the name of an appraiser near you. For more information about the DAR Museum click here.
First, check our "wish list" available on this web site to get an idea of what sort of items we collect. Then contact the museum either via email, telephone, or by letter. Keep in mind that we must consider many things in accepting a gift of an object such as condition, rarity (we may already have several things like it already), family history, as well as our ability to care for the item properly. For more information about the DAR Museum click here.
The DAR Museum Shop sells gift items and books that relate to the mission of the museum. There is a great selection of toys, ceramics, scented items, jewelry, silver, quilt and needlework items, and so much more. Please call (202) 879-3208 or email email@example.com. The Museum Shop is open the same hours as the museum. Shipping is available for orders placed by phone, mail, email or the website. For more information about the DAR Museum click here.
Over the last century, generous DAR members have donated many of the decorative arts objects in the museum collection. We have some wonderful items that have been given by generous donors who are not members of DAR.
Many of the objects come with family histories, which is a significant advantage of our collection.
The first recorded donation was a set of china, which was never formally accessioned and therefore is not in the DAR Museum's possession. Accessioning did not begin until around 1910. The first formally accessioned item was a beaded bag owned and used by Malatiah Youngs, wife of Samuel Youngs, a Revolutionary War soldier. Malatiah's great-granddaughter donated it during the early 1910s.
Though the year 1840 symbolically represents the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in America, we do not limit ourselves to that actual date. Depending upon the collection involved we will accept objects after 1840 if they help further the scope of the collection or are useful in a period room.
We have a small collection of guns and swords and not all of them are from the Revolutionary War.
We have several pieces of presidential china, including George Washington's; three arm chairs made for the White House during President Monroe's administration; a pair of Dolley Madison's earrings; Thomas Jefferson's socks and slippers; a quilt made by Mary Tayloe Lloyd Key, the wife of Francis Scott Key; and silver made by silversmith and patriot Paul Revere. Since First Lady Caroline Scott Harrison was the first President General of the DAR, we have many personal and ceremonial objects relating to the Harrisons.
As the museum does not have the space to accept everything offered, a collecting policy can be sent to you on request, or you can call the museum office at (202) 879-3241 and be referred to the appropriate curator.
Docent-led tours of the period rooms are available for walk-in visitors on the hour and the half hour Monday through Friday from 10:00 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. and Saturday from 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Self-guided tours are available before 10:00 a.m. and after 3:00 p.m. and throughout the day when a docent is not available.
Special period room tours can be arranged for groups of 10 or larger but must be reserved at least 4 weeks in advance. Tours last approximately 1 hour in length and can be scheduled Monday through Friday 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. with limited availability on Saturday. A $3 per person fee will be charged for each group tour. For further information or to schedule a tour, please contact the Assistant Curator of Education at (202) 879-3341 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
The DAR Museum is actually located in Memorial Continental Hall, a marble building that fronts 17th Street. It was designed in the Neoclassical Revival or Beaux-Arts style by Edward Pierce Casey. This National Historic Landmark was completed in 1910 and is the oldest of three buildings that make up the NSDAR complex.
DAR Constitution Hall is located at the other end of the block and fronts 18th Street. It was also designed in the Neoclassical style by noted architect John Russell Pope and completed in 1929. Concerts and other events are held in this National Historic Landmark.
There is limited parking at the DAR Museum. On most days some metered parking ($1 per hour in change) is available. Nearby garages can be found on Pennsylvania, 17th and 18th streets. The closest metro stops are Farragut West (Blue and Orange lines) and Farragut North (Red line).
The DAR Museum and gift shop are accessible Monday - Friday 9:30 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. and Saturdays 9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
The DAR provides a variety of scholarships to high school and college students. To find out more about specific scholarships given by DAR, please visit the Scholarships page.
Yes, in addition to a wide variety of other scholarships, DAR has specific scholarships to help American Indian students pay for their college education or vocational training. For more information on American Indian scholarships, please visit the Scholarships page.
No, however if you need assistance in proving your Indian bloodline, please see http://www.native-languages.org/genealogy.htm. If you search the web you will find other similar sites. For more information about DAR scholarships click here.
DAR scholarships are offered to help defray the costs of tuition, books, and room and board for specific courses of study at the college and graduate levels. Unfortunately, the scholarship program does not provide funding to assist students defray the costs of travel or participation in summer programs or camps. For more information about DAR scholarships click here.
DAR Constitution Hall does not produce any of the events presented in the Hall. All events are arranged by independent producers or sponsors who are responsible for all the details of the presentation. The producer is solely responsible for ticket sales, advertising, hiring and paying all necessary staff, contracting vendors, and paying the acts. You can locate the event schedule in the Constitution Hall section. For more information about Constitution Hall click here.
The DAR Constitution Hall box office is only open on the day of an event, for only that event, and is operated by the producer of the event, not the Constitution Hall staff. For more information about Constitution Hall click here.
There is adequate metered parking on the streets surrounding the Hall at night and on weekends but there is no parking for Hall events on the DAR grounds. The nearest Metro station is Farragut North, which is 6 blocks north of the Hall or Farragut West. The Colonial Parking Garage near Constitution Hall stays open for public events at the Hall. For more information about Constitution Hall click here.
There is light fare available in the lobby of Constitution Hall during most shows. You can find a list of nearby restaurants on the Visitor Services page of the Constitution Hall section. Also, there is full bar service available in the lobby as well as in the lounge on the lower level. For more information about Constitution Hall click here.
No, DAR Constitution Hall is part of a three-building complex owned and operated by the Daughters of the American Revolution. The Hall was originally built in 1929 to house the DAR annual convention and now serves as a privately-owned performance venue. For more information about Constitution Hall click here.
No, DAR does not utilize applications of other hereditary societies. DAR requires the use of its specific application and submission of proof documentation which is entered into the DAR Library's collection of genealogical histories. For more information about DAR membership click here.
Yes, but only through your birth parents' lineage, not that of your adopted family. All lineage for DAR membership must be bloodline descent. For more information about DAR membership click here.
Yes, each member is required to complete an application which is included in the genealogical files. For more information about DAR membership click here.
No. Rental of DAR building space is open to anyone. For more information on hosting an event at the DAR, go to the Entertaining at DAR page in the National Society section.
There are a number of different rooms that are available for rent at DAR Headquarters and can host a variety of different types of functions. There are smaller, more intimate rooms that have been host to parties as small as 10 people. There are also large, adjoining rooms that can accommodate up to 700 people. For more information on specific room rentals and capacities, see the Entertaining at DAR page in the National Society section.
The DAR building hosts a variety of different private events including weddings, receptions, Bar/Bat Mitzvahs, meetings, corporate events, and filmings. For more information see the Entertaining at DAR webpage.
Special Projects Grants
Secured funds are those which are “in-hand”; 1:1 matching funds are required for DAR grant applications when the total project is no more than twice the amount of the grant request. If the total project exceeds twice the amount of the grant request, the applicant must have secured funds to complete the total project, less the amount of the DAR grant request.
Example: A project will cost $5,000; a grant application may be written for $2,500, provided the applying entity has secured $2,500 to match the requested grant amount (1:1 matching secured funds).
Example: A project will cost $30,000; a grant application may be written for $10,000 provided the applicant has secured funds of $20,000. This requirement also applies to large dollar projects; i.e. a project will cost $1,000,000. In order for an applicant to request a $10,000 grant, the applicant must have secured funds of $990,000 in order to assure DAR of completion of the total large dollar project.
Matching funds may include secured funds from individual donors, businesses, non-profit organizations or completed fundraising. Matching funds are acceptable from third parties and multiple donor sources. Matching funds are not required to come from the organization applying for the grant.
In-kind contributions may not be used as matching funds.
Grant applications from private foundations are not accepted. Only 501(c)(3) public charities may apply for a Special Projects Grant.
Examples of reasons which may disqualify a grant proposal include:
- More than eight single sided pages
- Page one of the IRS public charity 501(c)(3) tax determination letter is not included or name of grant applicant and name on IRS tax determination letter are not the same (proof of “aka” or “dba” is required)
- Applying entity is not current on its IRS 990/EZ/N tax filing
- Ineligible project:
o event, production, drama, camp, admission fee, etc., (projects must support permanent or lasting programs rather than events or short-term projects)
o building or site improvements/maintenance with no historic preservation significance (i.e., upgrades or updates to electrical or plumbing systems, etc.)
- Failure to list 1:1 matching secured funds
- Inadequate funds to complete the total project (all phases of a project, if phased)
- Ineligible expenses included in project budget
- Time frame to complete the grant project exceeds one year from the grant funding date
- Project, or phase of project, has begun, or will begin, before announcement of success of grant application (by May 1st)
The following are not eligible to be included in a DAR grant application project budget: administrative or operating expenses, travel costs, motor vehicles, mileage, lodging, meals, room rental, beverages or food, endowments, costs relating to fundraising campaigns or politically motivated activities, etc. Annual conferences, trips, camps, workshops, events or productions, etc. are not eligible. Administrative costs such as salaries, postage, office supplies, printing, invitations, marketing/advertising, etc. are ineligible. Security systems, elevators, awnings, landscaping, asbestos removal, septic systems, driveway paving, handicapped ramps, tree removal, inspections, architectural reviews, structural reports, permits, studies, etc. are disallowed.
An applicant’s annual operating budget is not accepted in lieu of a project budget.
Examples of acceptable expenses for a historical building restoration include:
- A furnace or climate control system essential to maintain the integrity of the building
- A roof or roof repair which is necessary to protect the building from damage or to restore it to its original historical architecture
- Restoration or repair of windows to the building’s original historical state
There has been a change in this restriction as of 2014. Grant funding will be awarded to a successful applicant only once during a DAR administration. Example: Successful applicants during the prior administration (2010-2013) are eligible to apply for an additional grant during any year of the current administration (2013-1016).
Yes, a grant application may be submitted at any time prior to the annual December 31 postmark deadline. However, grant applications are held until the postmark deadline has passed and are sent in a group to the judges.
No, all 1:1 matching funds must be currently secured and listed on the grant application. Funds anticipated from FUTURE fundraising, donations, contributions, income, phased pledges, tax credits, etc. do not qualify as secured funds, either for 1:1 matching funds or for funds to complete a total project.
Yes. Matching secured funds must be available and expended during the same period as provided in the grant application.
Yes, technology expenses are acceptable as tangible projects.
Successful grant applicants are notified by the national chairman by May 1, and furnished with a grant agreement form. By June 1, the national chairman posts the official list of grants awarded, after receiving the signed grant agreement form and proof documentation of matching funds from each awarded grantee. The entity name and brief description of the project are posted.
Grant applicants whose proposals are not awarded receive a standard notification via email by May 15. This is a courtesy notification by DAR to allow grant applicants to seek other funding sources for their projects.
Questions are encouraged to be emailed to the national chair at any time. Send your questions to email@example.com.
No. The DAR is an equal-opportunity employer and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, gender, national origin, age disability, religion, sexual orientation, marital status, or any other grounds prohibited by federal or District of Columbia law
Job vacancies are open to anyone who wishes to apply.
You can obtain information about current job and internship opportunities from the Career Opportunities page of the National Society section.
All Constitution Hall event-related positions are coordinated through the company in charge of that service and not DAR. For ushering positions contact: Theater Services Inc., (202) 333-4088. For security positions contact: Falcon Security, (202) 251-8080. For concessions positions contact: Best Vending Inc., (202) 737-4443. For stage crew positions contact: Local 22 of I.A.T.S.E., (301) 593-4650.
The Founders Club, Giving
The Founders Club is a legacy society, established in 2005, to recognize all members and friends who make one of the following gift plans with the NSDAR as a primary beneficiary: bequest in a will or trust, beneficiary of a life insurance policy or retirement plan, or funding of a Charitable Gift Annuity.
There are two reasons you should notify the NSDAR of your estate plans. The first reason is so that the NSDAR can help you with the wording of your bequest language so that your intentions can be properly carried out. The second reason is if you notify us of your intentions we can include you in special DAR events and ensure that you are properly recognized for your generosity.
The Heritage Club, Giving
The Heritage Club is a cumulative giving society established in 1998 to recognize all members and friends who make cumulative contributions of $500 or more since 1998 to NSDAR programs. To qualify, a donor must make at least $500 in cumulative donations via the Donation and Contribution Form (DEV-1003) to a designated fund, the President General's Project, or to the 1890 Annual Giving Circle.
No, the Heritage Club is a National Cumulative Giving Society established in 1998 to recognize gifts to NSDAR. Donations made to support local and state projects do not count towards Heritage Club.
No, the Heritage Club was established to recognize individuals making donations. State and chapter funds cannot be used for individual credit.
No, only the individual donor can receive Heritage Club credit for a donation.
Yes, you can make a donation for another member. The donation will be credited to the donor's name only.
No, as of November 2nd, 2009, the Heritage Club and the Founders Club are now two separate entities. This means that you are no longer able to receive Heritage Club credit for a planned gift. Those who have qualified for Heritage Club through a Founders Club gift prior to November 2nd, 2009, will maintain their status in both clubs.
1890 Annual Giving Circle, Giving
The 1890 Annual Giving Circle is an opportunity for members to support the NSDAR General Fund on a continuous Fiscal Year basis. The Fiscal Year runs from January 1- December 31. To qualify, members can donate on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis until they reach a minimum of $500 with the fiscal year. Donations can be made through the Direct Mail Program, the Donations and Contributions Form, and online. When you reach $500 within the fiscal year, you are eligible to purchase the pin.
The minimum donation is $500 each Fiscal Year. The donations can be made outright or cumulatively.
You can purchase the annual bar on March 1st of the following Fiscal Year.
Members will receive their membership benefits for the 1890 Annual Giving Circle the following Fiscal Year after the minimum donation of $500 has been made.
President General's Project, Giving
Every administration, the President General undertakes projects to support and promote during her tenure. The President General's Project allows the current administration to take on a relevant pressing need that embodies the mission of the National Society.
There are several ways to support the President General's project. You may make donations to the project through the Direct Mail Program to the Spring Address Labels Mailing or the Fall Calendar Mailing. You can also contribute using the Donations and Contributions form or online.
If you make a contribution of $100 you will qualify to purchase the Donor Pin from Hamilton Jewelers. If you make a contribution of $1,000 you will receive the Benefactor Pin as a gift. Contributions to the President General's Project also count towards Heritage Club credit.
Chapters may support the President General's Project by having each member pay $2 per year for the President General's three-year term; your chapter will then receive a national certificate recognizing 100% participation.
Yes, you may purchase past President General's Project pins if you have met the minimum contribution and there are still pins in stock at Hamilton Jewelers. Please contact Hamilton Jewelers at 1(800)786-5890 to inquire about availability.
Donor Wall, Giving
The donor wall, located at National Headquarters, is designed each administration to recognize donors who have supported the President General's Project with a minimum one time contribution of $250. The giving levels range from $250 to $10,000. Members may also choose to honor a loved one on the donor wall. Please note that donations must be made specifically toward the donor wall and that only one time donations qualify the donor for a plaque. Please contact the Development Associate at 202-879-3285 about the availability of the nameplates.
Yes, donor wall contributions count toward Heritage Club credit.
The Office of Development will notify you with a letter once your plate has been posted on the President General's donor wall.
Yes, provided there is space available. Please contact the Office of Development at 1(800)449-1776 or via email firstname.lastname@example.org for availability.
Direct Mail Program, Giving
The Direct Mail Program was established to secure funding for the President General's Project and the NSDAR General Fund. Premiums are mailed out four times a year. Donations to the spring and fall mailings (address labels and wall calendar) support the President General's Project and donations to the summer and winter mailings (pillow, blanket, hand towel, scarf, etc.) support the NSDAR General Fund and provides credit for 1890 Annual Giving Circle.
If you have not donated any of the four direct mailings within the last five years your name is dropped from the list. New members are automatically placed on the Direct Mail list for their first year of membership. If a new member has not donated within their first year they are dropped from the list. Please contact the Office of Development if you wish to make a donation to the Direct Mail Program at 1(800)449-1776.
Yes, simply call the Office of Development and request to be removed from the list. You may also specify if you would only like to receive certain items.
No, the Direct Mail Program is just one of several ways you can donate to the programs at NSDAR. If you wish to continue receiving or would like to receive the premiums you must donate through the Direct Mail Program using the reply devices enclosed or by specifying your gift toward the Direct Mail Program when contacting the Office of Development. However, if you do not wish to receive the premiums but would still like to support these programs, you can donate through the Donations and Contributions Form or online.
Naming of NSDAR Property, Giving
On occasion NSDAR seeks to recognize the efforts and contributions of individuals by the naming of buildings, portions of building, rooms, fixed furniture, trees, open spaces, and equipment. Before these can be named, the National Board of Management, upon the recommendation of the Executive Committee, must pass a ruling accepting the gift and agree to the naming of the property.
Donation and Contributions Form, Giving
The Donations and Contributions Form lists all donation funds and must be used to make all donations, with the sole exceptions of the donor wall and the Direct Mail Program.
No, all donations are to be sent directly to Office of Development at National Headquarters or through the reply devices included in the direct mail packages.
If your donor history does not reflect all of the gifts you believe you have made since 1998, please consult your bank statement. Then contact the Office of Development with proof of a cashed check or a credit card statement.
The State Chapter Achievement Chairman will verify all donations made directly to the Office of Development using the Voluntary Contributions/Donation Report for CAA Section 5, located on e-Membership. This report lists all donations made by individuals and chapters listed in Section 5 that meet the requirement.
The State Chapter Achievement Chairman will verify all donations made directly to the Office of Development using the Voluntary Contributions/Donation Report for CAA Section 9, located on e-Membership. This report lists all donations made by individuals and chapters listed in Section 9 that meet the requirement.
Donation Pins, Giving